Melissa Conrad, PhD

Assistant Professor

Currently, my interests are the molecular epidemiology of antimalarial resistance in Uganda and the impact of drug and insecticide resistance on the transmission of malaria from humans to mosquitoes.
Education
2021 - Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion Champion Training, University of California
PhD, 2012 - Biomedical Sciences, New York University School of Medicine
MS, 2007 - General Biology, New York University
BS, 2002 - Biology, Georgetown University
Publications
  1. Okitwi M, Orena S, Thomas K, Tumwebaze PK, Byaruhanga O, Nsobya SL, Conrad MD, Bayles BR, Rosenthal PJ, Cooper RA. Impact of Short-Term Storage on Ex Vivo Antimalarial Susceptibilities of Fresh Ugandan Plasmodium falciparum Isolates. 2022. PMID: 35266828


  2. Kreutzfeld O, Tumwebaze PK, Byaruhanga O, Katairo T, Okitwi M, Orena S, Rasmussen SA, Legac J, Conrad MD, Nsobya SL, Aydemir O, Bailey JA, Duffey M, Cooper RA, Rosenthal PJ. Decreased susceptibility to dihydrofolate reductase inhibitors associated with genetic polymorphisms in Ugandan Plasmodium falciparum isolates. 2021. PMID: 34460932


  3. Kreutzfeld O, Rasmussen SA, Ramanathan AA, Tumwebaze PK, Byaruhanga O, Katairo T, Asua V, Okitwi M, Orena S, Legac J, Conrad MD, Nsobya SL, Aydemir O, Bailey J, Duffey M, Bayles BR, Vaidya AB, Cooper RA, Rosenthal PJ. Associations between varied susceptibilities of PfATP4 inhibitors and genotypes in Ugandan Plasmodium falciparum isolates. 2021. PMID: 34339273


  4. Duvalsaint M, Conrad MD, Tukwasibwe S, Tumwebaze PK, Legac J, Cooper RA, Rosenthal PJ. Balanced impacts of fitness and drug pressure on the evolution of PfMDR1 polymorphisms in Plasmodium falciparum. 2021. PMID: 34193148


  5. Tumwebaze PK, Katairo T, Okitwi M, Byaruhanga O, Orena S, Asua V, Duvalsaint M, Legac J, Chelebieva S, Ceja FG, Rasmussen SA, Conrad MD, Nsobya SL, Aydemir O, Bailey JA, Bayles BR, Rosenthal PJ, Cooper RA. Drug susceptibility of Plasmodium falciparum in eastern Uganda: a longitudinal phenotypic and genotypic study. 2021. PMID: 34553183


  6. Asua V, Conrad MD, Aydemir O, Duvalsaint M, Legac J, Duarte E, Tumwebaze P, Chin DM, Cooper RA, Yeka A, Kamya MR, Dorsey G, Nsobya SL, Bailey J, Rosenthal PJ. Changing Prevalence of Potential Mediators of Aminoquinoline, Antifolate, and Artemisinin Resistance Across Uganda. 2020. PMID: 33146722


  7. Nsobya SL, Walakira A, Namirembe E, Kiggundu M, Nankabirwa JI, Ruhamyankaka E, Arinaitwe E, Conrad MD, Kamya MR, Dorsey G, Rosenthal PJ. Deletions of pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 genes were uncommon in rapid diagnostic test-negative Plasmodium falciparum isolates from Uganda. 2021. PMID: 33386076


  8. Nayebare P, Asua V, Conrad MD, Kajubi R, Kakuru A, Nankabirwa JI, Muhanguzi D, Dorsey G, Kamya MR, Nsobya S, Rosenthal PJ. Associations between malaria preventive regimens and Plasmodium falciparum drug resistance mediating polymorphisms in Ugandan pregnant women. 2020. PMID: 33020152


  9. Musiime AK, Smith DL, Kilama M, Geoffrey O, Kyagamba P, Rek J, Conrad MD, Nankabirwa JI, Arinaitwe E, Akol AM, Kamya MR, Dorsey G, Staedke SG, Drakeley C, Lindsay SW. Identification and characterization of immature Anopheles and culicines (Diptera: Culicidae) at three sites of varying malaria transmission intensities in Uganda. 2020. PMID: 32576188


  10. Musiime AK, Smith DL, Kilama M, Rek J, Arinaitwe E, Nankabirwa JI, Kamya MR, Conrad MD, Dorsey G, Akol AM, Staedke SG, Lindsay SW, Egonyu JP. Impact of vector control interventions on malaria transmission intensity, outdoor vector biting rates and Anopheles mosquito species composition in Tororo, Uganda. 2019. PMID: 31881898


  11. Conrad MD, Rosenthal PJ. Antimalarial drug resistance in Africa: the calm before the storm? 2019. PMID: 31375467


  12. Asua V, Vinden J, Conrad MD, Legac J, Kigozi SP, Kamya MR, Dorsey G, Nsobya SL, Rosenthal PJ. Changing molecular markers of antimalarial drug sensitivity across Uganda. 2018. PMID: 30559133


  13. Wallender E, Zhang N, Conrad M, Kakuru A, Muhindo M, Tumwebaze P, Kajubi R, Mota D, Legac J, Jagannathan P, Havlir D, Kamya M, Dorsey G, Aweeka F, Rosenthal PJ, Savic RM. Modeling prevention of malaria and selection of drug resistance with different dosing schedules of dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine preventive therapy during pregnancy in Uganda. 2018. PMID: 30530597


  14. Rasmussen SA, Ceja FG, Conrad MD, Tumwebaze PK, Byaruhanga O, Katairo T, Nsobya SL, Rosenthal PJ, Cooper RA. Changing Antimalarial Drug Sensitivities in Uganda. 2017. PMID: 28923866


  15. Conrad MD, Mota D, Foster M, Tukwasibwe S, Legac J, Tumwebaze P, Whalen M, Kakuru A, Nayebare P, Wallender E, Havlir DV, Jagannathan P, Huang L, Aweeka F, Kamya MR, Dorsey G, Rosenthal PJ. Impact of Intermittent Preventive Treatment During Pregnancy on Plasmodium falciparum Drug Resistance-Mediating Polymorphisms in Uganda. Volume 216 of Issue 8. 2017. PMID: 28968782


  16. Conrad MD, Mota D, Musiime A, Kilama M, Rek J, Kamya M, Dorsey G, Rosenthal PJ. Comparative Prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum Resistance-Associated Genetic Polymorphisms in Parasites Infecting Humans and Mosquitoes in Uganda. Volume 97 of Issue 5. 2017. PMID: 29016309


  17. Taylor AR, Flegg JA, Holmes CC, Guérin PJ, Sibley CH, Conrad MD, Dorsey G, Rosenthal PJ. Artemether-Lumefantrine and Dihydroartemisinin-Piperaquine Exert Inverse Selective Pressure on Plasmodium Falciparum Drug Sensitivity-Associated Haplotypes in Uganda. 2016. PMID: 28480232


  18. Nankabirwa JI, Conrad MD, Legac J, Tukwasibwe S, Tumwebaze P, Wandera B, Brooker SJ, Staedke SG, Kamya MR, Nsobya SL, Dorsey G, Rosenthal PJ. Intermittent Preventive Treatment with Dihydroartemisinin-Piperaquine in Ugandan Schoolchildren Selects for Plasmodium falciparum Transporter Polymorphisms That Modify Drug Sensitivity. 2016. PMID: 27401569


  19. Yeka A, Kigozi R, Conrad MD, Lugemwa M, Okui P, Katureebe C, Belay K, Kapella BK, Chang MA, Kamya MR, Staedke SG, Dorsey G, Rosenthal PJ. Artesunate/Amodiaquine Versus Artemether/Lumefantrine for the Treatment of Uncomplicated Malaria in Uganda: A Randomized Trial. 2015. PMID: 26597254


  20. Cooper RA, Conrad MD, Watson QD, Huezo SJ, Ninsiima H, Tumwebaze P, Nsobya SL, Rosenthal PJ. Lack of Artemisinin Resistance in Plasmodium falciparum in Uganda Based on Parasitological and Molecular Assays. 2015. PMID: 26033725


  21. Tumwebaze P, Conrad MD, Walakira A, LeClair N, Byaruhanga O, Nakazibwe C, Kozak B, Bloome J, Okiring J, Kakuru A, Bigira V, Kapisi J, Legac J, Gut J, Cooper RA, Kamya MR, Havlir DV, Dorsey G, Greenhouse B, Nsobya SL, Rosenthal PJ. Impact of antimalarial treatment and chemoprevention on the drug sensitivity of malaria parasites isolated from ugandan children. 2015. PMID: 25753626


  22. Taylor SM, Parobek CM, DeConti DK, Kayentao K, Coulibaly SO, Greenwood BM, Tagbor H, Williams J, Bojang K, Njie F, Desai M, Kariuki S, Gutman J, Mathanga DP, Mårtensson A, Ngasala B, Conrad MD, Rosenthal PJ, Tshefu AK, Moormann AM, Vulule JM, Doumbo OK, Ter Kuile FO, Meshnick SR, Bailey JA, Juliano JJ. Absence of putative artemisinin resistance mutations among Plasmodium falciparum in Sub-Saharan Africa: a molecular epidemiologic study. 2014. PMID: 25180240


  23. Conrad MD, Bigira V, Kapisi J, Muhindo M, Kamya MR, Havlir DV, Dorsey G, Rosenthal PJ. Polymorphisms in K13 and falcipain-2 associated with artemisinin resistance are not prevalent in Plasmodium falciparum isolated from Ugandan children. Volume 9 of Issue 8. 2014. PMID: 25144768


  24. Mbogo GW, Nankoberanyi S, Tukwasibwe S, Baliraine FN, Nsobya SL, Conrad MD, Arinaitwe E, Kamya M, Tappero J, Staedke SG, Dorsey G, Greenhouse B, Rosenthal PJ. Temporal changes in prevalence of molecular markers mediating antimalarial drug resistance in a high malaria transmission setting in Uganda. Volume 91 of Issue 1. 2014. PMID: 24799371


  25. Nankoberanyi S, Mbogo GW, LeClair NP, Conrad MD, Tumwebaze P, Tukwasibwe S, Kamya MR, Tappero J, Nsobya SL, Rosenthal PJ. Validation of the ligase detection reaction fluorescent microsphere assay for the detection of Plasmodium falciparum resistance mediating polymorphisms in Uganda. 2014. PMID: 24629020


  26. Conrad MD, LeClair N, Arinaitwe E, Wanzira H, Kakuru A, Bigira V, Muhindo M, Kamya MR, Tappero JW, Greenhouse B, Dorsey G, Rosenthal PJ. Comparative impacts over 5 years of artemisinin-based combination therapies on Plasmodium falciparum polymorphisms that modulate drug sensitivity in Ugandan children. Volume 210 of Issue 3. 2014. PMID: 24610872


  27. Conrad MD, Kissinger P, Schmidt N, Martin DH, Carlton JM. Genetic diversity of Trichomonas vaginalis reinfection in HIV-positive women. Volume 89 of Issue 6. 2013. PMID: 23694936


  28. Conrad MD, Bradic M, Warring SD, Gorman AW, Carlton JM. Getting trichy: tools and approaches to interrogating Trichomonas vaginalis in a post-genome world. Volume 29 of Issue 1. 2012. PMID: 23219217


  29. Conrad MD, Gorman AW, Schillinger JA, Fiori PL, Arroyo R, Malla N, Dubey ML, Gonzalez J, Blank S, Secor WE, Carlton JM. Extensive genetic diversity, unique population structure and evidence of genetic exchange in the sexually transmitted parasite Trichomonas vaginalis. Volume 6 of Issue 3. 2012. PMID: 22479659


  30. M Conrad, A Gorman, J Schilinger, S Sullivan, J Upcroft, J Gonzalez, P L Fiori, R Arroyo, J Ravel, W E Secor, J Carlton. P4-S3.07 Population genomics of Trichomonas vaginalis reveals a globally distributed two-phylotype population structure. 2011. PMID: